Background This study reviews the contemporary literature in interprofessional teamwork training in simulation. A systematic review was performed to collate the evidence surrounding teamwork and non-technical skills training, comparing tools, their applicability and metrics.
Methodology A literature search was performed from 01/01/2005 to 01/05/2016 using keywords: in situ, simulation, training, assessment, crew resource management and synonyms thereof.
This was complemented with hand-searching of key journals and References. Abstracts unrelated to interprofessional clinician education and/or papers without interventional methodology were excluded.
Results 51 papers met all inclusion criteria. Most suitable studies related to trauma, obstetrics, emergency medicine or paediatrics.
All eligible studies reported improved team functioning, with varying methodological quality. Some studies intending to assess teamwork actually measured attitudes or knowledge instead (n = 13); and others used subjective participant-reported outcomes (n = 17). In studies where scenarios were videotaped and objectively rated (n = 12), this was largely carried out appropriately with multiple, trained raters and statistical analysis demonstrating acceptable inter-rater reliability. There were few well validated tools for interprofessional teamwork measurement in simulation; many studies used a poorly validated tool or generated their own questionnaire without adequate consideration of the metrics.
Most studies used mixed teaching methodologies bringing into question the role of simulation alone in developing teamwork (n = 35). Many studies chose laboratory-based simulation to assess the impact on teamwork, but only one study directly compared it to in situ.
Conclusions and future research The importance of good teamwork in clinical care is evidenced, and simulation contributes to this. The literature, although plentiful with examples of interprofessional teamwork simulation, lacks validated teamwork scales to ensure effectiveness, without the confounding presence of additional training media. This systematic review highlights the need to validate tools in different settings to broaden applicability. As an output a teamwork tool for use in paediatrics is now being adapted and validated.
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