Table 2

Critical performance items (CPIs) recorded by real time raters (RTRs)

ScenarioCritical performance itemN (%)
anaesthesiologists observed
N (%)
CRNA observed
Jet ventilationDemonstrates knowledge of the updated (2013) ASA difficult airway algorithm216 (75)15 (22)
Recognises that improvised devices are ineffective at delivering adequate pressures for JV9 (3)5 (8)
Knows their department's JV resources (location)193 (67)41 (61)
Properly operates a manual jet ventilator (ie, makes correct connections, applies breaths in a proper frequency and pressure)89 (31)7 (10)
ACLS/PACU ischaemiaReliably applies ACLS guidelines in all measured domains (eg, drug, dose, cardiopulmonary resuscitation sequence)55 (19)16 (24)
Speaks up when incorrect ACLS protocols are suggested by confederate participants (or actual participants)219 (76)7 (11)
Reliably operates a biphasic defibrillator in order to defibrillate, perform synchronised cardioversion or pace199 (69)16 (24)
GROUP performs ACLS in an acceptable manner that is in keeping with current guidelines253 (88)51 (76)
DAPTProperly delays an elective surgery for a patient with a drug eluting stent placed ≤12 months prior to surgery and off DAPT127 (44)5 (7)
Knows how to access the ASA practice alert for the perioperative management of patients with coronary artery stents89 (31)7 (10)
Line swapRecognises an evolving site-side error and prevents a wrong-sided surgery190 (66)57 (86)
Recognises that a hypoxic gas mixture is being delivered to their patient within 3 min of tech starting line swap55 (19)9 (14)
Once informed or aware that there is an ‘oxygen supply problem’ manages the problem correctly (ie, understands gas pressures coming to machine)219 (76)23 (34)
Communication and teamworkGROUP demonstrated remediable failures in either communication or teamwork dynamics279 (97)66 (98)
  • ASA, American Society of Anesthesiologist; DAPT, dual antiplatelet therapy; JV, jet ventilation.