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0220 Development And Fabrication Of Paediatric Inguinal Hernia Phantom For Open And Laparoscopic Surgery
  1. Giuseppe Retrosi1,2,
  2. Georgios Petrou2,
  3. Simon Clarke1,2
  1. 1Paediatric Surgery Unit - Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
  2. 2Imperial College London, London, UK


Background The benefit of surgical simulation in surgical training is widely supported by literature. However, this is attributed mainly to laparoscopic surgical simulation. Papers regarding models for open surgery are not largely published. Our aim is to realise a multi-functional and visually realistic paediatric inguinal hernia model to be used for training in open and laparoscopic surgery.

Methodology Process to develop the paediatric inguinal hernia model: Define the body part (groin region) and life-cast to isolate it. Ensure inclusion of important landmarks, form, shape, and position. Produce scaled model that includes layers and anatomical structures. Research on microscopic level to understand the behaviour of tissue: look, feel, behaviour when dissected, handled, and reconstructed. Find appropriate materials that would ensure haptic and visual realism and start working with the layers. Fabricate layers individually to simulate haptic qualities. Define key structures for simulating surgical procedure (anatomical relationship among deferent vas, blood vessels and hernia sac, peritoneum, etc.) to ensure realism on the model, and surgical procedure steps to ensure realism of the procedure performed on the model.

Results We have developed a realistic paediatric inguinal hernia model that can be used for open and laparoscopic surgical training. The materials used for the tissue in the model, ensuring visual realism and haptic feedback, make it a good training tool. All the key procedural steps (in open and laparoscopy) looked very realistic. Our personal experience in performing open and laparoscopic procedures suggests that the model can be successfully validated for face, content, and construct validity.

Potential impact Our paediatric inguinal hernia model can be used for skills training (open and laparoscopic surgery). The model needs to be tested for face, content and construct validity to establish proficiency based curriculum, based on performances of expert paediatric surgeons, before including its usage in the paediatric surgical training.


  1. Davies J, Khatib M, Bello F. Open surgical simulation - a review. J Surg Educ. 2013;70(5):618–27

  • Category: Course or curriculum evaluation/innovation/integration

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