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Team Training of Inter-Professional Students (TTIPS) for improving teamwork
  1. John T. Paige1,
  2. Deborah D. Garbee2,
  3. Qingzhao Yu3,
  4. Vadym Rusnak4
  1. 1Surgery, Louisiana State University (LSU) Health New Orleans School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
  2. 2Office of the Dean, LSU Health New Orleans School of Nursing, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
  3. 3Biostatistics, LSU Health New Orleans School of Public Health, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
  4. 4Internal Medicine, Leonard J. Chabert Medical Center, Houma, Louisiana, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr John T. Paige; jpaige{at}


Objective In surgery, dysfunctional teamwork is perpetuated by a ‘silo’ mentality modelled by students. Interprofessional education using high-fidelity simulation-based training (SBT) may counteract such modelling. We sought to determine whether SBT of interprofessional student teams (1) changes long-term teamwork attitudes and (2) is an effective form of team training.

Design A quasiexperimental, pre/postintervention comparison design was employed at an academic health sciences institution. High-fidelity simulation-based training of 42 interprofessional teams of third year surgery clerkship medical students and senior undergraduate nursing students was undertaken using a two-scenario format with immediate after action debriefing. Pre/postintervention TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Attitudes questionnaires (5 subscales, 30 items, Likert type) were given to the medical student and undergraduate nursing student classes. Pre/postsession Readiness for Inter-Professional Learning (RIPL; 19 items, Likert type) surveys and postscenario participant-rated and observer-rated Teamwork Assessment Scales (3 subscales, 11 items, Likert type) were given during each training session. Mean TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Attitudes Questionnaire, RIPL and Teamwork Assessment Scales scores were calculated; matched pre/postscore differences and trained versus non-trained TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Attitudes Questionnaire scores were compared using paired t-test or analysis of variance.

Results Both student groups had 10 significantly improved RIPL items as well as TeamSTEPPS Teamwork Attitudes Questionnaire (TTAQ) mutual support subscales. Medical students had a significantly improved TTAQ team structure subscale. Over a simulation-based training session, each observer-rated Teamwork Assessment Scales subscale and two self-rated Teamwork Assessment Scales subscales significantly improved. Trained students had significantly higher TTAQ team structure subscales than non-trained students.

Conclusions Interprofessional education using high-fidelity simulation-based training of students is effective at teaching teamwork, changing interprofessional attitudes and improving long-term teamwork attitudes.

  • simulation
  • inter-professional education
  • teamwork
  • surgery
  • undergraduate medical education
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  • Contributors Concept and design: JP; acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data: JP, QY, VR; drafting of manuscript: JP, DG, QY; critical revision of manuscript: JP, DG, QY, VR.

  • Funding 2011 - 2012 Educational Enhancement Grant from the LSUHSC-NO Academy for the Advancement of Educational Scholarship

  • Competing interests John T. Paige: royalties from Oxford University Press as co-editor for Simulation in Radiology;research funding from Acell, Inc. (wound healing), LSU Board of Regents (software development), HRSA (inter-professional education and team training), SGEA (tool development)Deborah Garbee and Qingzhao Yu: research funding from HRSA (inter-professional education and team training) and SGEA (tool development)Vadym Rusnak: consultant Simulab, Inc., research funding LSU Board of Regents (software development).

  • Ethics approval LSU Health New Orleans Health Sciences Center IRB.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Correction notice This paper has been amended since it was published Online First. Owing to a scripting error, some of the publisher names in the references were replaced with ’BMJ Publishing Group'. This only affected the full text version, not the PDF. We have since corrected these errors and the correct publishers have been inserted into the references.

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