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A team leader’s gaze before and after making requests in emergency care simulation: a case study with eye-tracking glasses
  1. Kyota Nakamura1,
  2. Takuma Sakai2,
  3. Takeru Abe1,
  4. Takeshi Saitoh3,
  5. Frank Coffey4,
  6. Andrew MacKenzie5,
  7. Akira Taneichi6,
  8. Keiko Tsuchiya6
  1. 1 Quality and Safety Department, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
  2. 2 Department of Emergency Medicine, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
  3. 3 Graduate School of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Iizuka, Fukuoka, Japan
  4. 4 Department of Research and Education in Emergency Medicine, Acute Medicine and Major Trauma, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, UK
  5. 5 Department of Psychology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, UK
  6. 6 Graduate School of Urban, Social and Cultural Studies, Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
  1. Correspondence to Dr Keiko Tsuchiya, Graduate School of Urban Social and Cultural Studies, Yokohama City University, 22-2 Seto Kanazawa Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan; ktsuchiy{at}

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The advanced technology of eye-tracking enables us to analyse healthcare professionals’ (HCPs) gaze behaviours. Gaze analysis has great potential to capture HCPs’ non-technical skills, especially situational awareness (SA).1 The SA framework has three levels. Level 1 involves perceiving an event, level 2 understanding what is being perceived importantly and level 3 being able to make predictions. How to analyse HCPs’ utterances and gaze in an integrative manner may provide insights into higher-order cognitive skills such as level 3 SA. This study aims to establish a method to describe HCPs’ gaze and utterances in emergency care interactions, focusing on a leader’s gaze at team members’ faces and bodies when making requests.


One simulated training session (about 16 min) was analysed, applying a multimodal corpus approach. The recording took place in the resuscitation area at Yokohama City University Medical Center. The team comprised a senior consultant as a team leader (Leader) with an eye-tracker, Tobii Pro Glasses 2, another two doctors (a senior doctor (SD) and a junior doctor (JD)), a foundation doctor and two nurses, and a simulated patient (male, …

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  • Contributors KN planned and conducted this study together with KT and collected the simulation session data with TSak. TSak designed the simulation scenario and arranged the training session. TA helped the planning and the ethics approval of this study. TSai supervised the analysis of the eye-tracking data. FC supported the design of this study and suggested the theoretical framework. AM aided the gaze analysis and proof-read the manuscript. AT assisted in the filming of the simulation session and the linguistic analysis. KT led this research project and drafted the manuscript.

  • Funding This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI grant numbers 17KT0062 and JP26285136.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of Yokohama City University.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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