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The Baby Shark (Songs Heard Affecting Resuscitation Kinetics) study
  1. Rebecca Singer1,
  2. Grace Leo1,2,
  3. Tessa Davis3,4,
  4. Ben Lawton5,6,7,
  5. Henry Goldstein8,9,
  6. Andrew Tagg9,10,
  7. Ross Fisher11,
  8. Damian Roland12,13 on behalf of Don’t Forget the Bubbles
  1. 1 Sydney Children’s Hospital Randwick, Randwick, Australia
  2. 2 University of New South Wales, Australia
  3. 3 Royal London Hospital, London, UK
  4. 4 Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom
  5. 5 STORK Simulation Training Optimising Resuscitation for Kids, Children’s Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service, South Brisbane, Australia
  6. 6 Emergency Department, Logan Hospital, Loganholme, Australia
  7. 7 School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Australia
  8. 8 Sunshine Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
  9. 9 University of Melbourne, Australia
  10. 10 Sunshine Hospital, Saint Albans, Australia
  11. 11 Sheffield Children’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, UK
  12. 12 SAPPHIRE Group (Health Science), University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
  13. 13 Paediatric Emergency Medicine Leicester Academic (PEMLA) group, Leicester Royal Infirmary, UK
  1. Correspondence to Damian Roland, SAPPHIRE Group (Health Science), University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 6TP, UK; dr98{at}


Previous research has examined the utilisation of musical cues to improve the performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) delivered in training environments. We postulated a musical cue that is both contemporary and transcends cultures may improve CPR performance. Our aim was to establish whether chest compressions are performed with improved rate and depth if a song of a fixed beat (PinkFong’s ‘Baby Shark’ with a tempo of 115 beats per minute (bpm) and 15 beats in each verse) is played to a healthcare professional immediately before undertaking CPR compared to whale noises (a non-metronomic rhythm). 58 Participants of a paediatric conference (majority doctors) were randomly assigned to listen to a minute of Baby Shark (28) or whale song (30) and then undertake a minute of CPR. There was no significant difference in the mean compression rate between the Baby Shark and control groups, with the groups achieving 121 and 125 bpm, respectively (p=0.18). In relation to compression depth within the target zone, the Baby Shark group had more compressions completed within the target zone (55%) than the control group (39%) although this difference was not significant (p=0.08). Listening to Baby Shark prior to undertaking simulated CPR does not improve overall performance, but there is a potential tendency to improve adequate compression depth which may be beneficial in training exercises.

  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
  • Training
  • Procedural Skills Training
  • Education And Evaluation

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  • Twitter Damian Rol @damian_roland.

  • Contributors GL, TD, BL, HG, AT, RF and DR designed the study. BL lead delivery of the study. DR wrote the first draft and all authors contributed to subsequent revisions lead by RS. All authors approved the final version.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data availability is not applicable as no data sets were generated and/or analysed for this study.

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