Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Simulation past, present and future—a decade of progress in simulation-based education in the UK
  1. Helen Higham1,2
  1. 1 Nuffield Division of Anaesthetics, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
  2. 2 Nuffield Department of Anaesthetics, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK
  1. Correspondence to Helen Higham, Nuffield Division of Anaesthetics, University of Oxford Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Oxford OX1 1NF, UK; helen.higham{at}


This review will present developments in simulation-based education (SBE) over the past decade with a focus on activity in the UK’s National Health Service and the role of the national society (the Association for Simulation Practice in Healthcare). The article covers the evolution of strategic changes for the use of SBE in the UK and the operational challenges faced by clinicians and other faculty in SBE. The expansion of the evidence base to support SBE in healthcare both in technical skills and, more broadly, in interprofessional team training is explored. Finally, the wider role of simulation in patient safety and healthcare systems, including testing pathways and the development of cognitive aids and involvement of patients in SBE is considered.

  • simulation based education
  • simulation faculty
  • patient safety

Data availability statement

Data sharing not applicable as no data sets generated and/or analysed for this study. N/A.

Statistics from

Data availability statement

Data sharing not applicable as no data sets generated and/or analysed for this study. N/A.

View Full Text


  • Twitter @HelenEHigham

  • Contributors Dr Higham was solely responsible for the content, revisions, final approval and accountability for this review article.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests The author is the immediate Past President of the Association for Simulated Practice in Healthcare and remained a member of the executive committee until January 2020.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.