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Reporting guidelines for health care simulation research: Extensions to the CONSORT and STROBE statements
  1. Adam Cheng1,
  2. David Kessler2,
  3. Ralph Mackinnon3,4,
  4. Todd P Chang5,
  5. Vinay M Nadkarni6,
  6. Elizabeth A Hunt7,
  7. Jordan Duval-Arnould7,
  8. Yiqun Lin8,
  9. David A Cook9,10,
  10. Martin Pusic11,
  11. Joshua Hui12,
  12. David Moher13,
  13. Matthias Egger14,
  14. Marc Auerbach15
  15. for the International Network for Simulation-based Pediatric Innovation, Research and Education (INSPIRE) Reporting Guidelines Investigators
    1. 1KidSIM-ASPIRE Research Program, Section of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Alberta Children's Hospital, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    2. 2Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons
    3. 3Royal Manchester Children's Hospital, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
    4. 4Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    5. 5Children's Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California
    6. 6The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine
    7. 7Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
    8. 8Alberta Children's Hospital, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary
    9. 9Multidisciplinary Simulation Center, Mayo Clinic Online Learning
    10. 10Division of General Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
    11. 11Institute for Innovations in Medical Education, Division of Education Quality & Analytics, NYU School of Medicine
    12. 12Department of Emergency Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
    13. 13Ottawa Methods Centre, Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute
    14. 14Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern
    15. 15Department of Pediatrics, Section of Emergency Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine
    1. Correspondence to Dr Adam Cheng, KidSIM-ASPIRE Research Program, Section of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Calgary, Alberta Children's Hospital, 2888 Shaganappi Trail NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T3B 6A8; chenger{at}

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    Simulation has seen growing use in health care as a ‘tool, device and/or environment (that) mimics an aspect of clinical care’1 in order to improve health care provider performance, health care processes and, ultimately, patient outcomes.1–5 The use of simulation in health care has been accompanied by an expanding body of simulation-based research (SBR) addressing educational and clinical issues.6–15 Broadly speaking, SBR can be broken down into two categories: (1) research addressing the efficacy of simulation as a training methodology (ie, simulation-based education as the subject of research); and (2) research using simulation as an investigative methodology (ie, simulation as the environment for research).16 ,17 Many features of SBR overlap with traditional clinical or educational research. However, the use of simulation in research introduces a unique set of features that must be considered when designing the methodology, and reported when publishing the study.16–19

    As has been shown in other fields of medicine,20 the quality of reporting in health professions education research is inconsistent and sometimes poor.1 ,11 ,21–23 Systematic reviews in medical education have quantitatively documented missing elements in the abstracts and main texts of published reports, with particular deficits in the reporting of study design, definitions of independent and dependent variables, and study limitations.21–23 In research specific to simulation for health care professions education, a systematic review noted many studies failing to ‘clearly describe the context, instructional design or outcomes’.1 Another study found that only 3% of studies incorporating debriefing in simulation education reported all the essential characteristics of debriefing.11 Failure to adequately describe the key elements of a research study impairs the efforts of editors, reviewers and readers to critically appraise strengths and weaknesses24 ,25 or apply and replicate findings.26 As such, …

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    • Collaborators INSPIRE Network Reporting Guideline Working Group: Dylan Bould, MBChB, MRCP, FRCA, Med, University of Ottawa,; Ryan Brydges, PhD, University of Toronto,; Michael Devita, MD, FCCM, FACP, Harlem Hospital Center,; Jonathan Duff, MD, MEd, University of Alberta,; Sandeep Gangadharan, MD, Hofstra University School of Medicine,; Sharon Griswold-Theodorson, MD, MPH, Drexel University College of Medicine,; Pam Jeffries, PhD, RN, FAAN, ANEF, George Washington University,; Lindsay Johnston, MD, Yale University School of Medicine,; Suzan Kardong-Edgren, PhD, RN, ANEF, CHSE, Robert Morris University,; Arielle Levy, MD, MEd, University of Montreal,; Lori Lioce, DNP, FNP-BC, CHSE, FAANP, The University of Alabama in Huntsville,; Marco Luchetti, MD, MSc, A. Manzoni General Hospital,; Tensing Maa, MD, Ohio State University College of Medicine,; William McGaghie, PhD, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine,; Taylor Sawyer, DO, MEd, University of Washington School of Medicine,; Dimitrios Stefanidis, MD, PhD, FACS, Carolinas HealthCare System,; Kathleen Ventre, MD, Children's Hospital Colorado,; Barbara Walsh, MD, University of Massachusetts School of Medicine,; Mark Adler, MD, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University,; Linda Brown, MD, MSCE, Alpert Medical School of Brown University,; Aaron Calhoun, MD, University of Louisville,; Aaron Donoghue, MD, MSCE, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia,; Tim Draycott, MD, FRCOG, Southmead Hospital,; Walter Eppich, MD, MEd, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University,; Marcie Gawel, MSN, BSN, MS, Yale University,; Stefan Gisin, MD, University Hospital Basel,; Lou Halamek, MD, Stanford University,; Rose Hatala, MD, MSc, University of British Columbia,; Kim Leighton, PhD, RN, ANEF, DeVry Medical International's Institute for Research and Clinical Strategy,; Debra Nestel, PhD, Monash University,; Mary Patterson, MD, MEd, Cincinnati Children's Hospital,; Jennifer Reid, MD, University of Washington School of Medicine,; Elizabeth Sinz, MD, FCCM, Penn State University College of Medicine,; G. Ulufer Sivrikaya, MD, Antalya Training and Research Hospital,; Kimberly Stone, MD, MS, MA, University of Washington School of Medicine,; Anne Marie Monachino, MSN, RN, CPN, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia,; Michaela Kolbe, PhD, University Hospital Zurich,; Vincent Grant, MD, FRCPC, University of Calgary,; Jack Boulet, PhD, Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research,; David Gaba, MD, Stanford University School of Medicine,; Peter Dieckmann, PhD, Dipl-Psych, Danish Institute for Medical Simulation,; Jeffrey Groom, PhD, CRNA, Florida International University,; Chris Kennedy, MD, University of Missouri Kansas City School of Medicine,; Ralf Krage, MD, DEAA, VU University Medical Center,; Leah Mallory, MD, The Barbara Bush Children's Hospital at Maine Medical Center,; Akira Nishisaki, MD, MSCE, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia,; Denis Oriot, MD, PhD, University Hospital of Poitiers,; Christine Park, MD, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University,; Marcus Rall, MD, InPASS Institute for Patient Safety and Teamtraining,; Nick Sevdalis, PhD, King's College London,; Nancy Tofil, MD, MEd, Universiity of Alabama at Birmingham,; Debra Weiner, MD, PhD, Boston Children's Hospital,; John Zhong, MD, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center,; Donna Moro-Sutherland, MD, Baylor College of Medicine,; Dalit Eyal, DO, St. Christopher's Hospital for Children,; Sujatha Thyagarajan, DCH, FRCPCH, PediSTARS India,; Barbara Ferdman, MD, University of Rochester Medical Center,; Grace Arteaga, MD, FAAP, Mayo Clinic (Rochester),; Tonya Thompson, MD, MA, The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences,; Kim Rutherford, MD, St. Christopher's Hospital for Children,; Frank Overly, MD, Alpert Medical School of Brown University,; Jim Gerard, MD, Saint Louis University School of Medicine,; Takanari Ikeyama, MD, Aichi Children's Helath and Medical Center,; Angela Wratney, MD, MHSc, Children's National Medical Center,; Travis Whitfill, MPH, Yale University School of Medicine,; Nnenna Chime, MD, MPH, Albert Einstein College of Medicine,; John Rice, PhD(c), US Department of the Navy (retired),; Tobias Everett, MBChB, FRCA, The Hospital for Sick Children,; Wendy Van Ittersum, MD, Akron Children's Hospital,; Daniel Scherzer, MD, Nationwide Children's Hospital,; Elsa Vazquez Melendez, MD, FAAP, FACP, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria,; Chris Kennedy, MD, University of Missouri Kansas School of Medicine,; Waseem Ostwani, MD, University of Michigan Health System,; Zia Bismilla, MD, MEd, The Hospital for Sick Children,; Pavan Zaveri, MD, MEd, Children's National Health System,; Anthony Scalzo, MD, FACMT, FAAP, FAACT, Saint Louis University School of Medicine,; Daniel Lemke, MD, Baylor College of Medicine,; Cara Doughty, MD, MEd, Baylor College of Medicine,; Modupe Awonuga, MD, MPH, MRCP(UK), FRCPCH, FAAP, Michigan State University,; Karambir Singh, MD, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine,; Melinda Fiedor-Hamilton, MD, MSc, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh,

    • Competing interests The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the Laerdal Foundation for Acute Medicine, who have previously provided infrastructure support for the INSPIRE network, and the Society for Simulation in Healthcare, who provided funding to cover the expenses of the consensus meeting. AC (study design, writing, editing and review of manuscript) is supported by KidSIM-ASPIRE Simulation Infrastructure Grant, Alberta Children's Hospital Foundation, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute and the Department of Pediatrics, University of Calgary; VMN (study design, writing, editing and review of manuscript) is supported by Endowed Chair, Critical Care Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the following research grants: AHRQ RO3HS021583; Nihon Kohden America Research Grant; NIH/NHLBI RO1HL114484; NIH U01 HL107681; NIH/NHLBI 1U01HL094345-01; and NIH/NINDS 5R01HL058669-10. DM (data interpretation, writing, editing and review of manuscript) is funded by a University Research Chair. Nick Sevdalis (collaborator) is funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care South London at King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health. Sevdalis delivers safety and team skills training on a consultancy basis to hospitals in the UK and internationally via the London Safety & Training Solutions Ltd. The other authors have no other financial or conflict of interest disclosures.

    • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

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