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Reconceptualising notes and handouts for the 21st century class
  1. Morkos Iskander1,2
  1. 1School of Surgery, Health Education North West, England, UK
  2. 2Department of Educational Research, Faculty of Social Sciences, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Morkos Iskander, Department of Urology, Whiston Hospital, England L35 5DR, UK; morkos.iskander{at}

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It has become a common part of undergraduate medical training to include case-based and problem-based learning as a way to advance students’ understanding and encourage the application of knowledge, with the overall goal of achieving a higher level of clinical ability.1 These usually involve the examination of a stylised and simplified clinical scenarios, allowing the students to explore a disease process, while being guided through the key points on the curriculum. At my institution, in common with others, these sessions are conducted in groups, with the discussion facilitated by a senior clinician. This approach has been demonstrated to be advantageous in promoting effective clinical reasoning.2

When facilitating such sessions, it is my usual practice to provide diagrammatic representations as an additional explanation of decision trees, diagnostic pathways or points of surgical anatomy. The use of additional materials has been suggested as a beneficial adjunct to text-based description and discussion.3 4 For practical purposes, …

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