Table 1

Lessons still to be learnt? Examples of safety mechanisms in aviation and medicine across selected domains

Example domainAviationMedicine
Crisis managementCrisis checklists, simulator trainingChecklists increasingly in use but in limited contexts presently
Technical skillsHigh-fidelity flight simulator, obligatory trainingVaried implementation of procedural simulators
Technical error preventionStandardisation of equipment—every instrument panel is the same for a given model of plane, pilots trained and certified for specific planesn/a
Non-technical/team skillsCrew resource management (CRM)Team skills courses, aviation-style CRM
Systems stress testingRoutine obligatory training with simulated poor flying conditions and crisis managementn/a
Disaster investigationReplication of crisis conditions in simulator to analyse error and risk of repetitionPost hoc analysis of medical records, root cause analysis
Disaster responseNational/international response. Real-world crises identified and introduced into obligatory simulation training to prevent repeat process error. Grounding of planes in case of equipment errorVaried. Local centres responsible for managing own response systems