TableĀ 1

Comparison of simulation technologies used between HICs and LMICs (findings based on literature review and survey data)

  • Simulated patients

  • High-technology and low-technology manikins

  • Procedural simulation methods such as animals, cadavers or VR simulators

  • Computer-based simulations such as virtual worlds, serious games and applications.

  • Immersive environments such as simulated wards or operating rooms

  • In situ, where teaching and/or assessment is performed in the actual clinical environment

  • Simulated patients

  • Low-technology manikins, few high-technology manikins

  • Procedural simulation (animal, synthetic)

  • Computer-based virtual patients

  • HICs. High-income countries; LMICs, low income and middle income countries; VR, virtual reality.