Table 1

Quality appraisal scores for quantitative studies

PapersAuerback et al 41 Boet et al 20 Bond et al 14 Brett-Fleegler et al 26 Cheng et al 42 Cooper et al 43 Forneris et al 24 Geis et al 22 Grant et al 30
Question/objective sufficiently described?222211121
Study design evident and appropriate?222212222
Method of subject/comparison group selection or source of information/input variables described and appropriate?121N/A12111
Subject (and comparison group) characteristics sufficiently described?120N/A01111
If interventional and random allocation was possible, was it described?022N/AN/A21N/A1
If interventional and blinding of investigators was possible, was it reported?022N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A2
If interventional and blinding of subjects was possible, was it reported?N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
Outcome and exposure measure(s) well defined and robust to measurement/misclassification bias?122121222
Sample size appropriate?121101211
Analytic methods described/justified and appropriate?121201222
Some estimate of variance is reported for the main results?122200222
Controlled for confounding?020101010
Results reported in sufficient detail?121211222
Conclusions supported by the results?121211122
Summary score0.461.000.650.830.320.580.710.820.73