Table 4

Debriefing frameworks and measures used in the 18 studies

ReferenceDebriefing frameworkOutcome measure
Quality of debriefParticipant performance
Boet et al 20 Ottawa Global Rating ScaleTeam Emergency Assessment Measure
Bond et al 14 Technical/knowledge (B).
Cognitive (B).
interview (B).
Brett-Fleegler et al 26 Debrief framework to show (i) superior, (ii) average and (iii) poor debriefing (B).DASH
Freeth et al 16 Structured (B).Kirkpatrick framework adapted for IPE.
Forneris et al 24 Debriefing for Meaningful Learning.DASHHealth sciences reasoning test.
Geis et al 22 Structured (B).Survey (B).Mayo high performance teamwork scale.
Grant et al 30 Video-assisted oral debriefing (B).
Oral debriefing alone (B).
Behaviours (B).
Hull et al 17 Structured (B).OSAD
Kim et al (2017)Focused and corrective feedback (B).
Structured and supported debriefing
Team dynamics.
Team clinical performance.
Kolbe et al 18 TeamGAINS.Survey based on DASH and OSAD.Psychological safety.
Leader inclusiveness.
Lammers et al 15 Structured (B).Interview (B).
LeFlore and Anderson23 Facilitated debrief (B).
Modified debrief (B).
Survey (B).Knowledge assessment (B).
Technical evaluation (B).
Behavioural assessment.
Oikawa et al 32 Facilitator-led debriefing (B).
Self-debriefing (B).
Self-performance assessment (B).
Team performance assessment (B).
Reed28 Discussion debrief (B).
Discussion+journal (B).
Discussion+blog (B).
Savoldelli et al 21 Structured (B).ANTS
Smith-Jentsch et al 25 Guided team self-correction.Mental models of teamwork (B).
Teamwork processes (B).
Van Heukelom et al 27 Insimulation debriefing (B).
Postsimulation debriefing (B).
Survey (B).Self-reported confidence (B).
Zinns et al 29 REFLECT (B).REFLECT criteria (B).
  • ANTS, Anaesthesia Non-Technical Skills; B, bespoke; DASH, Debriefing Assessment for Simulation in Healthcare; DES, Debriefing Experience Scale; OSAD, Objective Structured Assessment of Debriefing.