Table 1

Observed facilitator interventions immediately before the debriefings moved into the Problem identification phase, number of occurrences and descriptions of the interventions

Facilitator interventionOccurrenceDescription
Uses video10The facilitator makes use of the video recordings: for example, gestures towards an area on the screen or gestures to follow an activity unfolding on the screen, stops the video and pauses in silence or points at something in a frozen picture (see transcript in figure 3).
Asks factual questions9The facilitator asks questions about what happened in the simulation or about events shown in the video recordings, for example, questions what a person was doing or questions about events that took place (eg, ‘And what is she doing?’).
Describes hypothetical scenarios5The facilitator describes an alternative scenario which differs from what happened in the simulation to make comparisons or to illustrate a point. In some cases, the facilitators pretended to be a person in such a situation (points and pretends to quote: ‘Sally, can you continue ventilating?’) and even enacted behaviours including walking to the neonatal resuscitation table gesturing to concretise potential problems.
Asks about opinions3The facilitator asks the participants about their opinions regarding behaviours and events in the simulation (eg, ‘Then the question is how did that report go?’).
Asks counterfactual questions2Rather than asking about what was visible on the video screen, the facilitator asks questions about aspects which did not take place (‘Is something missing here?’).
Corrects/questions2The facilitator corrects a misconception about the simulation. For instance, one participant incorrectly believed that Sally had forgotten to present herself and the facilitators says, ‘No, Sally said “I am Sally”.’
Authenticates2The facilitator describes aspects of a similar situation in a real case, for example, the composition of teams during resuscitations (‘… you can not be certain in advance exactly who will be there, which professions, how many of each and their levels of experience…’).
Confirms2Confirms what the participants say (‘Yes’; ‘Okay’) or by repeating what was said.