Table 1

Challenges and possible solutions for simulation and technology-enhanced learning during COVID-19 outbreak in China

ApproachesChallengesPossible solutions
Online learning
  1. MOOCs and other prerecorded online platforms;

  2. Teleconference software and mobile applications

Lack of learner engagement, interaction and real-time feedbackOnline group discussion via social network services (phone applications and so on)
Course-delivery quality, technical failureDelivery platform how-to-use manual, testing before course presentation, improve recording environment
Learner progress monitoringPrecourse and postcourse assignments
Mostly knowledge-based learning, not enough on clinical skillsAdd sessions on virtual lab/practical learning platform (eg, http://www.ilab-x.com/)
Simulation
  1. Training and maintaining procedural Skills (eg, hand hygiene, PPE)

  2. Specific patient management skills (eg, airway management, CRRT and ECMO)

  3. Training to adapting unfamiliar working environment

Limited training resources; large number of HCWs that require trainingReuse of equipment and materials; strive for support from the leadership
Limited qualified instructorsDesign, develop of course materials and fast iterations; training and maintain homogeneous, qualified faculty team
Limited time for course deliveryDevising a reasonable training scheme: reduce total training-time, allow self-paced learning, adequate grouping and scheduling
Increased chance of infectionSelf-protection, health check (body temperature and so on) before attending training, avoid a large group of learners attending
Skill degradation over timeAllow for repeated training routines, deploy just-in-time training mechanism
Systems probing
  1. Access to a certain area

  2. Time allocation

  3. Staff support and attending

Seek support from hospital leadership and relevant departments (outpatient, fever clinic, department of infectious diseases, office of infectious control and so on)
  • CRRT, continuous renal replacement therapy; ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; HCW, healthcare worker; MOOCs, Massive Open Online Courses; PPE, personal protective equipmen.