Table 1

Characteristics of the selected studies

ArticleSubjectsSkillComparisonOutcomeMeasureResult
Brinkman et al3018 vs 18Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a pig modelBT versus
VR trainer
Performance scoreGOALS
five custom items
BT better than VR
Denadai et al3112 vs 12Simple interrupted sutures and subdermal interrupted suturesSynthetic versus animal bench modelPerformance score
Efficiency
Global Rating Scale
Mean number of stitches in given time
No significant difference
Hassan et al3615 vs 15Laparoscopic psychomotor skillBT versus VRTimeSecondsVR better than BT
Kanumuri et al378 vs 8Laparoscopic suturing and knot tyingComputer enhanced versus VRTimeSecondsNo significant difference
Kotari et al 20023811 vs 13Laparoscopic psychomotor skillPelvic trainer versus VRTimeSecondsNo significant difference
Lehmann et al3912 vs 12Laparoscopic psychomotor skillConventional video trainer versus VRTimeSecondsNo significant difference
Lin et al4040 vs 20Laparoscopic suturing and knot tyingDirect vision training versus video-based trainingTimeSecondsVideo-based better than BT
Madan and Frantzides3414 vs 17Laparoscopic psychomotor skillConventional video trainer versus VRPerformance score
Time
Custom metrics
Seconds
No significant difference
Nemani et al326 vs 7Laparoscopic pattern cutting taskFundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (BT) versus
Virtual Basic Laparoscopic Skills Trainer (VR)
Performance score
Time
Custom metrics
Seconds
No significant difference
Tanoue et al3320 vs 20Laparoscopic psychomotor skill
Suturing and knot tying
BT versus
Procedicus MIST (VR)
Efficiency*
Time
Errors
Movements
Seconds
BT better than VR
Van Bruwaene et al3521 vs 21Laparoscopic suturingBT versus VRTimeSecondsBT better than VR
Youngblood et al4117 vs 16Three laparoscopic tasks in a pig modelTower Trainer (BT) versus
LapSim (VR)
Performance score
Time
Custom global score
Seconds
VR better than BT
  • BT, box trainer; VR, virtual reality.