Table 7

Welch’s one-way repeated measures analysis of variance for ratings of the five factors of observer role value

FactorNMeanSDMean differences
95% CIPerspectiveFocusValueLearning
Observer perspective in debrief2164.21±0.484.14–4.27.
Focus2163.88±0.553.80–3.950.333*
Value of role2164.16±0.574.09–4.24−0.0470.286*
Learning in observer role2162.81±0.622.73–2.89−1.400*−1.067*−1.353*
Observing first2164.03±0.613.95–4.11−0.179*−0.154*−0.1321.221*
Total2163.67±0.353.62–3.71
  • F max 2.186. Mauchly’s test indicated the assumption of sphericity was violated so Huynh-Feldt Epsilon results are reported.

  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.