Table 5

Location of observers during scenario

Location of observers (n=217)
Same room as scenarioSeparate viewing spaceIt depends
n (%)n (%)n (%)Embedded Image ( φ )
Clinical group
Allied health8(40)5(25)7(35)
Nursing/midwifery60(49)30(25)32(26) Embedded Image =18.566 df 6
Medicine9(16)**24(42)24(42)p=0.005 (0.296)‡
Paramedicine5(38)4(31)4(31)
Factors influencing location
Facility design (49%)52(54)***25(26)19(20)
Scenario design (20%)8(18)2(5)34(77)***Likelihood ratio†
Hands-on immersion (18%)0(0)33(89)***4(11)142.658 df 8
Observer involvement (10%)18(82)***2(9)2(9)p<0.001 (0.825)‡
Resources (3%)3(30)0(0)7(70)***
  • †Likelihood ratio reported when Embedded Image assumptions of minimum cell count violated.

  • φ effect size weak <0.2, moderate=0.2–0.3, strong >0.3.

  • α significant at *0.05, **0.01, *** 0.001.