Table 6

Summary of exploratory factor analysis of observer role vale (n=216)

Rotated factor loadings
ItemObserver perspectiveFocused observationLearningRole valueObserving first
22Observers have a valuable perspective to add to the debrief 0.79 0.14−0.100.160.14
20RObservers should watch but not participate in the debrief as it is about what the hands-on learners experienced and felt 0.64 −0.120.060.120.14
23Hands-on learners value the observers’ perspective during the debrief 0.64 0.16−0.040.140.02
19Observers are able to see the scenario from a different perspective to the hands-on learners 0.49 0.160.120.260.09
4R†Learners require a hands-on role to learn from simulation scenarios0.34−0.080.240.19−0.03
17Observers benefit from the focus provided by an observer guide or checklist0.01 0.75 −0.15−0.040.14
18Focused observation is an important factor in achieving learning objectives0.02 0.72 0.020.200.00
25An observer tool focuses observer feedback and comments during the debrief0.10 0.64 0.090.030.23
16Observers benefit from knowing the learning objectives when watching a scenario0.05 0.47 0.070.140.14
9RLearners seem to prefer a hands-on role in simulation scenarios−0.06−0.06 0.69 0.090.10
1RThe learning in a hands-on role is better than in an observer role in simulation scenario learning0.230.10 0.63 0.08−0.15
10Learners seem to prefer an observer role in simulation scenarios−0.200.01 0.61 0.050.27
3There is little difference in the quality of learning in a hands-on role and in an observer role in a simulation scenario0.070.00 0.56 0.07−0.08
7‡Having observer roles is a way of increasing access to simulation because under the right circumstances the learning is at least as valuable as hands-on learning0.200.31 0.48 0.40 0.04
5Observation is a valuable way of learning from simulation scenarios0.180.050.12 0.75 0.11
8I believe the observer role is an important role for learners0.220.220.21 0.70 0.10
6Having observer roles is a way of increasing access to simulation0.260.060.06 0.66 0.05
12Some learners seem to benefit from being an observer before having a hands-on role in simulation scenarios0.130.200.000.07 0.79
11Some learners seem to prefer to be an observer before having a hands-on role in simulation scenarios0.120.16−0.020.16 0.66
13†I am able to identify the learners that would benefit from being an observer before having a hands-on role in simulation scenarios0.060.250.06−0.010.28
Eigenvalues4.612.492.161.431.26
% of variance explained (total 47.67%)20.649.888.274.913.97
0.760.750.740.780.77
  • †Does not meet factor loading 0.30.

  • ‡Loads across two factors.

  • Rotation method: Varimax with Kaiser normalisation. KMO 0.752.

    Factor loadings over 0.30 appear in bold.